How did I solve the “TypeError: Cannot read property ‘prototype’ of undefined” (NodeJS-ExpressJS-Redis)?

After installing Redis in our server as outlined in my last post on installation of Redis in CentOS 6.5, it was time for me to setup ExpressJS-NodeJS-Redis(Session Store) setup for the webapp that I am working on.

Everthing seemed perfect until I attempted to start the node server using the command: node app.js. I was welcomed with the below error message which highlighted the fact that connect-redis npm module had falied to connect to my Redis server.

var redis_store = require('connect-redis')(express);
TypeError: Cannot read property 'prototype' of undefined
    at module.exports (/home/nodeuser/node_modules/connect-redis/lib/connect-redis.js:96:41)
    at repl:1:43
    at REPLServer.self.eval (repl.js:110:21)
    at repl.js:249:20
    at REPLServer.self.eval (repl.js:122:7)
    at Interface.<anonymous> (repl.js:239:12)
    at Interface.EventEmitter.emit (events.js:95:17)
    at Interface._onLine (readline.js:202:10)
    at Interface._line (readline.js:531:8)
    at Interface._ttyWrite (readline.js:760:14)

Upon scouting Internet for answers, the solution posted by Andrei Karpushonak at StackOverflow post titled, ‘RedisStore – TypeError: Cannot read property ‘prototype’ of undefined‘ solved the issue.

Since I have used expressjs version 3.4.8 in my application, I had to use a compatible connect-redis npm. As per the StackOverflow post, the version mentioned by Andrei Karpushonak is 1.4.7.

I installed connect-redis-1.4.7 using the command: npm install --save connect-redis@1.4.7 and the webapp started without reporting any failures.

How did I install Zen-Coding in Eclipse?

As I have started creating an AngularJS-ExpressJS-NodeJS-Redis-Couchbase project, I like to utilize the power of Zen Coding1 in Eclipse.

Zen Coding allows for quicker development of HTML, XML, CSS files using custom abbreviations instead of writing all the tags. For example, the below snippet would result in a well formatted basic HTML 5 document structure to be created in your editor.



<!doctype html>
<html lang="en">
    <meta charset="UTF-8">


On similar lines:


Would result in:

<div id="container">
    <div id="sidebar"></div>
    <div id="content">
        <div id="row">
            <div id="col-md-6"></div>
            <div id="col-md-6"></div>

Zen-Coding has been renamed as by its author – Sergey Chikuyonok2 as Emmet3 and can be downloaded form the github location

Tutsplus has a good video tutorial on Zen-Coding4, which is worth a watch. Its about 5 minutes in length.

A quick review of the excellent Emmet documentation5 would provide a better insight into the substantial benefits of using Zen-Coding.

Zen-Coding plugin is available for many offline text editors that can be installed in your machine.

Many of the online services such as JSFiddle adn JS Bin also have support for Zen-Coding facility.

To install Zen-Coding (Emmet) in Eclipse, I tried downloading it from Eclipse-Marketplace – and it failed.

The below approch worked for me:
- Open Install New Software... within the Help menu in Eclipse IDE.
- Paste: within the text-box after Work with: label.
- Wait for Eclipes to download the available software information and select Emmet from the displayed list.
- Click the Next button and follow the screens. Finally restart Eclipse for the changes to take effect.


How did I solve Redis Installation failure in CentOS 6.5?

I decided to use Redis1 as a session store for my ExpressJS2-NodeJS3-Couchbase4 application.

The first step towards this was to download, compile and install Redis5.

The compressed tar.gz redis package is available at I downloaded this package and extracted it in /opt directory. The installation page5 suggests executing the make command. In my case, the command failed with the below error:

make[3]: gcc: Command not found
make[3]: *** [net.o] Error 127
make[3]: Leaving directory `/opt/redis-2.8.9/deps/hiredis'
make[2]: *** [hiredis] Error 2
make[2]: Leaving directory `/opt/redis-2.8.9/deps'
make[1]: [persist-settings] Error 2 (ignored)
    CC adlist.o
/bin/sh: cc: command not found
make[1]: *** [adlist.o] Error 127
make[1]: Leaving directory `/opt/redis-2.8.9/src'
make: *** [all] Error 2

The solution for the above problem was to install gcc and make using the command: yum install gcc make.

Upon completion of the installation, I triggered, make once more. This time around, the make command failed and the errors indicated that few header files were missing.

make[1]: Entering directory `/opt/redis-2.8.9/src'
    CC adlist.o
In file included from adlist.c:34:
zmalloc.h:50:31: error: jemalloc/jemalloc.h: No such file or directory
zmalloc.h:55:2: error: #error "Newer version of jemalloc required"
make[1]: *** [adlist.o] Error 1
make[1]: Leaving directory `/opt/redis-2.8.9/src'
make: *** [all] Error 2

After scouting Internet for solutions67, I finally ended up with the below solution8.

cd /opt/redis-2.8.9/deps
cd ..

Compiling the contents of the deps (dependencies) folder before the issuing, make in the /opt/redis-2.8.9/ solved the problem.

If the make is successful, the redis-server binary would end up in the src folder (in my case, it would be /opt/redis-2.8.9/src). The server can be started using:


Its time to start creating a start-up script (daemon process) and configure it to start during the runlevels 2, 3, 4 and 5.


How to disable Unity animations in Ubuntu 14.04?

If you are running Ubuntu in VirtualBox or other virtualization platform, disabling all the animations improves the response of the OS to certain extent.

Starting with Ubuntu 12.10, MyUnity integration with the System Settings (as was the case in 12.04) has been removed. In 12.10 and above, which includes 13.04, 13.10 and 14.04, Compiz settings manager can be used to disable the required animations.

  • Step 1: Install Compiz Settings Manager12.
    sudo apt-get install compizconfig-settings-manager
  • Step 2: Disable Animations345
    • Start the application (from the Unity Dash)
    • Traverse to Unity plugin -> Experimental (tab)
    • Disable the animations as required.


How did I improve the performance of my Ubuntu 12.04 system?

There are many web pages that outlines steps to be performed to increase the performance of your Ubuntu system. In this post, I would like to outline the steps that I have followed to increase the overall performance of the system. Most of the tweaks listed below were captured from the websites listed in the References section.

Disclaimer: If you do not know what you are doing, then it would be better to leave your working system as is. There is always a possiblity that you may destablize your system by modifying critical system settings. Please use caution when performing the below outlined steps. I have outlined the steps that I had performed; this by no means indicates that your system would perform better than it is. Use the below listed suggestions at your own risk.

  • Remove unwanted services using Boot-Up Manager (bum)1:
    • Install BUM: sudo apt-get install bum
    • Open BUM using: System -&gt; Administration -&gt; BootUP Manager or search for bum in Ubuntu Dash.
    • Or, execute sudo bum from comand line.
    • Disable the services that you do not prefer to auto-start as part of the system start-up sequence.
    • Refer to the reference links2 for more information on usuage of advanced usage of bum.
  • Remove few more services using sysv-rc-conf3:
    • sysv-rc-conf is a terminal GUI for managing services listed in /etc/rc[runlevel].d folder.
    • Install it using sudo apt-get install sysv-rc-conf
    • Start it using sudo sysv-rc-conf
    • Read about the tool using man sysv-rc-conf4
    • Use arrow keys to navigate and press space to enable or disable a service in a particular runlevel.
    • Press q to save and terminate the program.
    • Press r to revert the settings to the previous state (in case you have not yet saved the changes).
  • Disable/remove unused applications that run as ‘Background services’:
    • Use the solution mentioned at ‘Ask Ubuntu’5 to enable listing of services that auto-start along with Unity Desktop in the ‘Startup Applications’ menu. In summary execute the below commands (courtesy to Todd Partridge ‘Gen2ly’ – Ask Ubuntu)
      mkdir -p ~/.config/autostart # If not already created
      cd ~/.config/autostart
      cp /etc/xdg/autostart/*.desktop .
      sed -i "s/NoDisplay=true/NoDisplay=false/g" *.desktop
    • Click on the ‘Logout/Login’ icon on the ‘top-right’ corner of the Unity screen and select ‘Startup Applications control panel’ and disable the services that you do not use.
  • Remove the ‘indicator-messages’:
    • Its the ‘mail’ icon displayed on the ‘top-right’ corner of the Unity Desktop before the ‘Login/Logout’ and other menu items.
    • If you do not depend on it, you can execute the below commands to uninstall it.
      sudo apt-get autoremove indicator-messages
      sudo apt-get autoremove telepathy-indicator
  • Remove any left-over dependency packages that were not uninstalled when you uninstalled application:
    • Execute sudo apt-get autoremove
  • Use preload6:
    • If you prefer to let the system track the list of most frequently used applications and load them into the RAM before they are demanded, install ‘preload’ by executing sudo apt-get install preload.
    • Read How can I improve overall system performance? for some valuable input on preload.
  • Use BleachBit to unwanted files8:
    • As per the author, ‘BleachBit can be used to free cache, delete cookies, clear Internet history, shred temporary files and delete logs.
    • Install it using, sudo apt-get install bleachbit and run it by searching for the ‘BleachBit’ applition in the Unity Dash.
  • Adjust swappiness9:
    • Read the article – Ask Ubuntu – How do I configure swappiness? for some good insight into what swappiness is and how to configure it.
    • In summary, the swappiness value indicates how often the ‘swap’ file in the hard-disk is used.
    • By default, it may be set to 60 (in my system it was pre-set to 60). This implies that the kernel will swap the contents in the RAM to the disk when the RAM is about half full.
    • Check your the swappiness value set in your system using the command: cat /proc/sys/vm/swappiness
    • To change the value, open /etc/sysctl.conf (as root) and set/add the line, vm.swappiness = 10.
    • A value of 10 indicates that the swap file will only be used when the RAM is about 80% or 90% full.
  • Disable visual effects:
    • You can switch to a 2D desktop environment by installing: gnome-session-fallback using the command: sudo apt-get install gnome-session-fallback
    • You can also consider alternative desktop environments such as XFCE, LXDE etc. These are default in Xubuntu and Lubuntu respectively.


Ubuntu: BASH adds an extra space after auto-completion of directory names

I have been bugged for few months now by an unusual behavior of BASH where it adds an additional space after every auto-completed directory name. Initially, I just compromised with the behavior and continued. But lately, it has become an annoyance to press the backspace key after every auto-completed directory name.

Searching for solutions landed me in Ubuntu Bugs Launchpad.1 Applying the solution shared by Leo as Comment 10 solved the issue.2

The issue is due to the fact that the bash auto-completion logic defined in acroread's auto-completion file located at /etc/bash_completion.d/ overrides the default behavior.

There are quite a few solutions to this issue:

  1. The easiest is to delete /etc/bash_completion.d/ and restart your shell.
  2. Alternatively, you can consider and renaming the variable _filedir defined in /etc/bash_completion.d/ with a custom name say, _acroread_filedir. More information about this solution is available in the Adobe Reader for Linux forum.3


Django-nonrel + VirtualEnv + uWSGI + Nginx + ImportError: No module named wsgi

If your uWSGI configuration is causing the below error to be displayed in the logs:

from django.core.wsgi import get_wsgi_application>
ImportError: No module named wsgi

Check if you are using Django 1.3 or below. If yes, confirm if the below lines are listed in your file:

from django.core.wsgi import get_wsgi_application
application = get_wsgi_application()

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